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Whether you think you can or you can't, either way you are right. Henry Ford (1863-1947) The will to win means nothing without the will to prepare. Juma Ikangaa, Tanzanian marathoner Learn one way; react. Learn many ways; understand. Tadeu Dias, Former Professional Brazilian Football Player and Professional US Soccer Coach Eighty percent of success is showing up. Woody Allen Don't get so stuck in your ways that you can't change. Sam Walton Outsiders have the intuitive ability to continually view problems in fresh ways and to identify ineffective practices and traditions. John Kotter, Harvard Business School professor and best selling author Even when experts all agree, they may be mistaken. Bertrand Russell Use your head, and save your feet. W...

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Exercise Psychology

Exercise & Mental Health The National Institute of Mental Health recognizes exercise as a valid treatment for anxiety and depression. Levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine are higher in those who exercise. These, in turn, may elevate mood, reduce depression, and improve mental focus. Exercise or physical activity assists the psycho-physiological adaptation of emotional stress. Weight training, in particular, has shown to raise body image and global self-esteem. Exercise has been shown to improve mental function and is speculated to enhance creativity and problem solving ability. Exercise can be seen as one of the components essential for physical and mental health in today's society. Positive Peer Pressure Not all peer pressure is bad thing. Giving in to...

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Body Image

Body shaming and body loathing is a universal problem. Statistics: 53% of 13-year old American girls aren't happy with their bodies. This grows to 78% by the time they are 17 years old (Maine 2011) Having a negative body image during childhood may be a risk factor for the development of psychopathologies in later ages. Teenage girls are 12 times likely to die from an eating disorder and any other illness. 30 million people in the US alone that have eating disorders eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of any mental illness. although psychological and social attitudes have an influence, they can be one of many triggers toward eating disorders for those with other predispositions. 52% of US teens...

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Cognitive Phenomena

Self Sabotaging Behavior Self Sabotaging Behavior (AKA: Self-handicapping) is a cognitive strategy used to withdraw efforts or create obstacles in order to keep potential failure from hurting self-esteem, or to maintain public and private self-images of competence. Individuals have a general tendency to seek consonance between their views of themselves (self-esteem, self-concept, self-efficacy) and their lives. Critical inner voices (negative self-talk) encourage individuals to act out their defenses in all areas of their lives. Individuals are often unaware of their own self-sabotaging thoughts and behaviors. "You are your own worst enemy" Kolditz TA, Arkin RM (1982). An impression management interpretation of the self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 492-502. Adaptive Preference Formation Individual criticizes unattainable: Desires goal...

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Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values. People engage in a process called dissonance reduction to bring their cognitions and actions in line with one another. Dissonance reduction can be achieved in four ways. In an example case could be a situation where someone has decided that he will avoid eating sweets, but has found himself eating a dessert. The four methods of reduction would be: Change behavior or cognition "I will not eat any more of this dessert" Justify behavior or cognition by changing the conflicting...

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